How Long to Rewire the Brain From Addiction?: A Guide to Recovery

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Certified cognitive-behavioral therapist, expert addiction and chemical dependency counselor, certified for more than twenty years of experience in adolescent, adult and family psychotherapy.
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Effects of Drugs and Alcohol on the Brain

Understanding the Impact

Substance abuse has profound impacts on the brain, altering its structure and how it functions. Drugs and alcohol can affect neurotransmitter systems, which are crucial for the brain’s communication pathways. These substances can mimic natural neurotransmitters, block them, or increase their activity, leading to altered perception, mood, and behavior [1].

Neurotransmitter Systems and Addiction

The dopamine system, often associated with the “reward pathway,” is significantly affected by drugs and alcohol. When a person consumes these substances, dopamine is released in large amounts, creating a sense of euphoria. Over time, the brain’s chemistry and structure begin to change in response to these unnatural levels of dopamine, leading to the development of tolerance and dependence. This means that more of the substance is required to achieve the same effect, and without it, the person may feel depressed or unable to enjoy normal activities.

Another key neurotransmitter affected is glutamate, which influences the brain’s reward system and the ability to learn. When drugs and alcohol disrupt glutamate signaling, cognitive functions such as decision-making and impulse control are impaired, making it harder for individuals to resist cravings or consider the long-term consequences of their substance use.

Structural Changes in the Brain

Chronic exposure to drugs and alcohol can lead to structural changes in the brain, particularly in areas involved in judgment, decision-making, learning and memory, and behavior control. For example, imaging studies have shown that substance abuse can shrink the prefrontal cortex, the part of the brain responsible for executive functions such as planning, impulse control, and self-regulation. This atrophy can impair a person’s ability to make decisions that support their well-being and recovery.

Areas Of The Brain Affected By Addiction

Addiction profoundly impacts various areas of the brain, each playing a critical role in the development and perpetuation of addictive behaviors [2]

  • The nucleus accumbens, often referred to as the brain’s reward center, is crucial for experiencing pleasure and motivation. It becomes hyperactive with drug use, reinforcing the compulsion to seek out substances. 
  • The amygdala and hippocampus are involved in emotional processing and memory, contributing to the emotional attachment to substance use and the powerful, often triggering memories of drug use. 
  • The prefrontal cortex, responsible for decision-making, impulse control, and self-regulation, undergoes changes that result in decreased ability to resist urges and make healthy choices. 
  • Lastly, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a central role in the release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter heavily involved in the reward circuitry and pleasure sensations associated with addiction. 

Together, these regions form a network that underlies the complex nature of addictive behaviors, influencing everything from the initial high to the relentless cycle of addiction.

Reversibility and Recovery

The good news is that some of the brain changes caused by substance abuse are reversible with sustained abstinence. The brain demonstrates a remarkable capacity for neuroplasticity, which is its ability to adapt and rewire itself. Recovery processes, such as therapy and support groups, can help re-establish healthier patterns of brain function and structure over time. However, the extent of recovery can depend on several factors, including the duration and severity of substance abuse, the presence of co-occurring mental health disorders, and individual differences in brain biology and environmental influences.

The Brain Rewiring Process: What Is It?

The concept of brain rewiring, or neuroplasticity, is a fundamental aspect of neuroscience that describes the brain’s ability to change and adapt in response to new experiences, learning, and environmental changes. This adaptability is not only crucial for learning new skills but also plays a significant role in recovery from addiction. 

When someone struggles with addiction, the brain undergoes various changes that reinforce dependency on substances. The process of rewiring the brain in recovery involves reversing these changes and strengthening new, healthy pathways that do not depend on drugs or alcohol.

How The Brain Rewires In Recovery

Recovery from addiction is a complex process that involves multiple stages, each contributing to the brain’s rewiring. Initially, the focus is on detoxification and abstaining from the substance, which allows the brain to start adjusting to the absence of drugs or alcohol. During this phase, the brain begins the process of reducing its overreliance on the substances for dopamine production and starts to restore the natural balance of neurotransmitters [3].

As recovery progresses, behavioral therapies and support mechanisms play a crucial role in rewiring the brain. Activities such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness practices, and participation in support groups help in developing new cognitive and emotional pathways. These practices encourage the brain to form new neural connections that support sober living, enhancing the individual’s ability to cope with stress, regulate emotions, and make healthier choices.

When Does the Brain Normalize After Detox?

The timeline for brain normalization after detox varies significantly among individuals, depending on factors like the length of addiction, the type of substance used, and the person’s overall health. Generally, the acute withdrawal phase can last from a few days to several weeks, during which significant neurological adjustments occur. However, it can take months to years for the brain to fully rewire and normalize from the long-term effects of substance abuse. This period, often referred to as the post-acute withdrawal syndrome (PAWS), is characterized by fluctuations in mood, cognitive function, and physical health as the brain continues to heal.

Can You Heal Your Brain Cells After Addiction?

Remarkably, the brain possesses the innate capacity to heal and generate new cells, a process known as neurogenesis. While certain areas of the brain are more conducive to neurogenesis, such as the hippocampus, recovery from addiction can be facilitated through various activities that promote brain health. The following can all contribute to the regeneration and strengthening of brain cells:

  • Regular exercise
  • Proper nutrition
  • Adequate sleep
  • Engaging in mentally stimulating activities 

Moreover, abstinence from substances and engagement in therapeutic activities not only help in healing the brain but also in rewiring the neural circuits to support a life free from addiction. Although some changes to the brain due to substance abuse can be long-lasting, ongoing recovery efforts can lead to significant improvements in cognitive functions, emotional regulation, and overall well-being.

In summary, the journey of recovery from addiction is deeply intertwined with the process of brain rewiring. Through a combination of detoxification, therapy, lifestyle changes, and support, individuals can foster significant neurological healing, paving the way for a fulfilling, substance-free life.

Treatment Options to Help The Brain Recover from Addiction

Recovering from addiction involves more than just abstaining from substance use; it requires a comprehensive approach to heal and rewire the brain. The journey to recovery employs various treatment options, each targeting different aspects of addiction and its effects on the brain. Understanding these options can empower individuals and their support networks as they navigate the path to recovery.

Detoxification and Medical Supervision

The first step in treating addiction and initiating the brain’s recovery process is often detoxification. Under medical supervision, detox allows the body to rid itself of substances while managing withdrawal symptoms in a safe environment. This stage is crucial for stabilizing the individual’s physical health and preparing the brain for further recovery processes. In some cases, medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is used to alleviate withdrawal symptoms and cravings, thereby reducing the risk of relapse during the early stages of recovery.

Behavioral Therapies

Behavioral therapies are pivotal in addressing the psychological aspects of addiction and facilitating brain rewiring. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is particularly effective, as it helps individuals identify and challenge negative thought patterns and behaviors associated with substance use. By developing healthier coping mechanisms and decision-making skills, individuals can create new neural pathways that support sobriety.

Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have also gained popularity for their role in addiction recovery. These practices, including meditation and yoga, help individuals focus on the present moment and develop a greater awareness of their thoughts and feelings without judgment [4]. MBIs have been shown to reduce stress, improve emotional regulation, and enhance the brain’s ability to resist cravings.

Social Support and Group Therapy

Recovery is often more successful with strong social support. Family therapy, as well as group therapy sessions, including 12-step programs and other support groups, provide a sense of community and understanding that is vital for long-term recovery. Sharing experiences and coping strategies with others who are facing similar challenges can reinforce the neural changes made during individual therapy and help sustain motivation for sobriety.

Holistic Approaches

Holistic treatment options focus on healing the whole person, not just the addiction. Nutrition, exercise, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture and massage can improve overall well-being and support brain health. Proper nutrition replenishes nutrients that may have been depleted by substance abuse, while regular physical activity stimulates the production of new neural connections and enhances mood.

Medically-Assisted Treatment (MAT)

For some individuals, MAT can be an important component of addiction treatment. Certain medications can reduce cravings, normalize brain function, and treat co-occurring mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety. By addressing these underlying issues, MAT can remove some of the obstacles to recovery and facilitate the brain’s healing process.

Continuing Care

Recovery from addiction is a long-term process that often requires ongoing treatment and support. Continuing care programs, which may include outpatient treatment, counseling, and support groups, help individuals maintain their sobriety and continue to foster brain recovery. These programs provide a safety net that can catch and address relapses quickly, minimizing their impact and helping the individual get back on track.

In summary, treating addiction and aiding the brain in recovery is a multifaceted process that requires a combination of medical, psychological, and holistic approaches. Each individual’s path to recovery will be unique, but by employing a comprehensive treatment plan, it is possible to overcome addiction and achieve a healthier, substance-free life. The journey may be long and challenging, but the rewards of recovery and the restoration of brain health are immeasurable.


These FAQs highlight common concerns and underscore the importance of personalized information and support for individuals navigating the complex process of recovery from addiction.

Can the brain fully recover from addiction?

  • Many people are concerned about whether their brain can return to normal functioning after addiction. The answer varies depending on several factors, including the substance used, the duration of addiction, and the individual’s overall health.

How long does it take for the brain to heal from addiction?

  • Individuals often want to know about the timeline for brain recovery. While acute withdrawal symptoms may subside within a few weeks, the brain can continue to heal and rewire itself over months to years of sustained sobriety.

What are the signs of brain recovery during addiction treatment?

  • Understanding the milestones of recovery can help individuals gauge their progress. Signs include improved cognitive functions, better emotional regulation, increased ability to handle stress, and diminished cravings.

Can brain damage from addiction be reversed?

  • Questions about the reversibility of brain damage are common. Some changes, particularly those related to cognitive functions and neural connectivity, can improve significantly with comprehensive treatment and lifestyle changes.

How does detoxification affect the brain?

  • People are curious about the initial stage of recovery. Detoxification can be challenging, as the brain adjusts to the absence of substances, but it’s a crucial step towards restoring brain health.

What role does therapy play in brain recovery from addiction?

  • Therapy is a cornerstone of addiction treatment. Individuals often seek to understand how therapies like CBT and mindfulness practice contribute to neurological healing and the development of new, healthy brain pathways.

Are medications used in addiction treatment safe for the brain?

  • Concerns about the safety of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) and its impact on the brain are common. It’s important to understand that when used appropriately, MAT can be a valuable tool in managing withdrawal symptoms and reducing cravings, facilitating brain recovery.

How can I support my brain’s recovery from addiction?

  • People looking for practical advice may ask about lifestyle changes that can aid brain recovery. Nutrition, exercise, adequate sleep, and engagement in mentally stimulating activities are all beneficial.

What happens if I relapse? Does it mean my brain will never recover?

  • Many worry that a relapse indicates failure or irreparable damage. It’s crucial to understand that relapse can be part of the recovery journey and doesn’t mean the brain cannot heal or that progress has been lost.

Can I improve my brain health even after years of substance abuse?

  • There’s often concern that long-term substance abuse has caused permanent damage. While recovery may be more challenging after prolonged addiction, significant improvements in brain function and structure are possible with sustained effort and support.

If you or a loved one have further questions or are considering treatment for substance abuse, reach out to The Encino recovery & Detox Center where one of our admissions team will be happy to help. 


[1] Addiction and the Brain. Psychology Today.

[2] The Neuroscience of Addiction Recovery. Recovery Research Institute.

[3] Mavrikaki, M. 2020. Brain plasticity in drug addiction: Burden and benefit. Harvard Health Blog.  

[4] Acevedo, B. 016. The Neural Mechanisms of Meditative Practices: Novel Approaches for Healthy Aging. Curr Behav Neurosci Rep. 2016; 3(4): 328–339. Published online 2016 Oct 18. doi: 10.1007/s40473-016-0098-x

Administrator / Chief Clinical Officer
Certified cognitive-behavioral therapist, expert addiction and chemical dependency counselor, certified for more than twenty years of experience in adolescent, adult and family psychotherapy.
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